The Java Language Specification, Java SE 9 Edition




The Java Language Specification, Java SE 9 Edition by James Gosling
English | PDF | 2017 | 808 Pages | ISBN : N/A | 3.93 MB



English | PDF | 2017 | 808 Pages | ISBN : N/A | 3.93 MB
T HE Java ® programming language is a general-purpose, concurrent, class- based, object-oriented language. It is designed to be simple enough that many programmers can achieve fluency in the language. The Java programming language is related to C and C++ but is organized rather differently, with a number of aspects of C and C++ omitted and a few ideas from other languages included. It is intended to be a production language, not a research language, and so, as C. A. R. Hoare suggested in his classic paper on language design, the design has avoided including new and untested features.
The Java programming language is strongly and statically typed. This specification clearly distinguishes between the compile-time errors that can and must be detected at compile time, and those that occur at run time. Compile time normally consists of translating programs into a machine-independent byte code representation. Run-time activities include loading and linking of the classes needed to execute a program, optional machine code generation and dynamic optimization of the program, and actual program execution.
The Java programming language is a relatively high-level language, in that details of the machine representation are not available through the language. It includes automatic storage management, typically using a garbage collector, to avoid the safety problems of explicit deallocation (as in C's free or C++'s delete ). High-performance garbage-collected implementations can have bounded pauses to support systems programming and real-time applications. The language does not include any unsafe constructs, such as array accesses without index checking, since such unsafe constructs would cause a program to behave in an unspecified way.
The Java programming language is normally compiled to the bytecode instruction set and binary format defined in The Java Virtual Machine Specification, Java SE 9 Edition.
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